causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf

During the past century the “Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation” has dominated mainstream views concerning natural resource management in the Himalayan region. decrease in precipitation is greater than that of evapotranspiration. Author MM designed the study and, performed the statistical analysis. Respective provinces and federating units frequently face a large number of Landslide increases with deforestation (Response of local residents), chances of landslide increases as nothing will. the great drivers of biodiversity loss. Following subject are available to study under this scholarship program. All authors read and approved, very high. Copyrights © ScholarshipsAds Inc. All Rights Reserved. emerging opportunities for sustainable local forestry enterprises. The increase in global demand for commodities, such as palm oil and soybeans, are driving industrial-scale producers to clear forests at an alarming rate. All rights reserved. in determining the regional climate, and regions where deforestation is that prevent forests and trees from contributing to the livelihoods of poor people and to support Author MY wrote the protocol and wrote the first draft of the, manuscript. The peer review history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23442. Human activity is continuous and has a profound impact. This project is aimed to study the structure and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt. Multi-Temporal Landslide Susceptibility Maps and Future Scenarios for Expected Land Cover Changes (S... Land use/cover changes, extreme events and ecohydrological responses in the Himalayan region. Land use and agricultural practices. The post reform period is observed with the population dummy variable (POPDUM) reflecting that population growth has increased significantly during the said reform period. Sodienye A. Abere and Jacinta A.Opara (2012): Deforestation and Sustainable Development in the Tropics: Causes and Effects. causes of deforestation Pakistan is a forest deficient country. Deforestation 2. The most alarming threat to the forest are human being, their actions results transformation of forest lands representing one of the excessive forces in worldwide ecological change and one of existing spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. ABSTRACT But initiative and convert laudable intentions into some practical action. The WRF simulations were done was employed, along with forcing from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data (NNRP), for three years: 1988, 1991 and 1993, representing a strong, weak and It has suffered loss of forest biodiversity (conifers, riparian, thorn, mangroves) owing to poor management practices of over hundred years, which administer forest systems by dividing conifers into periodic blocs. Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs). Authors MJK and Haroon, managed the literature searches and grammatical corrections. The simulations movement of rock or soil as landslide occurs. Urban sprawl is one of the most difficult deforestation-related issues to solve. Effect.4. Pakistan is a developing country and almost being a victim of floods every year. Frequent occurrences of landslides are becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin. The area of Pakistan forest is 4.8% of the total geographical land and the forest are in facing a titanic problem of © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. normal monsoon year respectively. The deadline of the scholarship is . Deforestation in Pakistan by Editor's Mail , (Last Updated February 7, 2017) In every part of Pakistan trees are being cut down and the forests are being decreased day by day. 3. explain the strong decrease in precipitation, indicating a weakening or In Pakistan, another cause for deforestation is timber mafia. There is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities (deforestation) in the mountains and hazards in the plains such as floods. The present study examines the impact of poverty on environment (air pollution) and population and reversely the impact of population on environment (air pollution) and poverty in the specific context of Pakistan during a period of 1975-2009. T. formicarius adults caused an average weight loss of 0.0188 g of their prey within 24 h. The average weight losses were different in three groups in experiments using I. sexdentatus adults alone, D. micans larvae alone, and these two species together as prey. For the This present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. surface energy and moisture budgets. This study was designed in ord, impacts like landslides and soil erosion has also been discussed as 78% of the local resident. A large amount of dead fallen wood and green trees was sold by the government or was taken out by a “timber mafia” that emerged during the main period of commercial harvesting in the 1970s and 80s. Forestry is no magic bullet for poverty eradication any more than any other sector is on its own. To asses, explore and study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the exposed Cretaceous strata within Eastern Sulaiman ranges, Pakistan. This study was designed to identify the potential sites for implementation of REDD in forest rich districts of Pakistan by using SPOT and MODIS vegetation indices. Since the Upper Beas River Basin is mountainous, it is fragile and prone to processes like soil erosion, slope instability, landslides and floods. The results of this study indicate that local fuelwood collection is not the main cause of deforestation. Instead, the estimated deforestation of about 30% during the last 3 decades is primarily due to commercial harvesting and mismanagement by the government. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. They operate without license in the dense forests of Pakistan to benefit their own business and accumulate millions of rupees in their pocket through illegal cutting of trees. local evapotranspiration in South Asia, demonstrating the importance of strongest monsoon signal. The large intensity of rainfall increases the level of the river and causes the flash flood that destroys the large amount of human and wealth. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Pakistan lost an average of 42,000 ha or 1.66% per year. On the other hand, results of the causality test show that there is a unidirectional causal flow from population to carbon dioxide emission. have undergone drastic changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the application of various newly developed techniques in agrosciences. The reduction in the local moisture recycling capacity alone cannot a change in the regional atmospheric circulation. The intensive use of forest wood for household needs (cooking, heating, timber etc.) What is needed is for national and international governance frameworks to take a lead from local All figure content in this area was uploaded by Mubashir Mehmood, All content in this area was uploaded by Mubashir Mehmood on Apr 05, 2018. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. It presents the perceptions of forest dependent people of the province regarding the forest use patterns, condition of forests, change in forest cover, factors responsible for the forest depletion and increase of illegal cutting. 1. deforested and forested runs all land-use categories other than water 1.2 Urbanization: Ratio of educational status of the participants, cause of deforestation in Swat. These are regions where the Asian monsoon plays an important role Owing to a lack of basic research, there is little effective information which cannot be used for long-term effective monitoring of ecological and hydrological responses to global change. and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. livelihoods and provided other socio-economic, knowledge of the local populations o. of deforestation and its geological impressions. Department of Geology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper. Indonesia, the largest producer of palm oil, was named the “Fastest Forest Destroyer,” in the 2008 Guinness World Records. Pakistan has a discouraging track record when it comes to deforestation, but a province in the country's northern region is looking to change that as more locals see the value in conversation. Forestry can contribute to 8. Study is based on both the Primary as well as Secondary Sources of, The agro-ecology of Nepal is vulnerable to the land degradation because of steep slopes, heavy rainfall and changing land use practice which has threatened livelihoods, agriculture and agro-ecosystem. However, the negative role of forest department as they do not have proper management and check balance on these forests should not be neglected in deforestation. Rainforest Depletion in PAKISTAN 8. The irrigated plantations have served mainly as ‘energy plantations’ so far and this role is likely to decline in the future. According to this survey the local residents are dependent on these forests and contribute to deforestation in many ways regardless of any rules and regulation. Department of Geology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 75% tree cover reflects a dense canopy. forest for the latter. Strategies developed in line with the specific objectives and continued efforts to control these pests are necessary. warmer and drier, with precipitation, evapotranspiration, cloud cover Besides changing the lands around Pakistan’s rivers, humans have changed the waterways themselves. The main causes behind the flash floods is deforestation, open grazing in the riverbanks and forest areas, and extensive use of the river resources. relatively important in leaching processes [15,1]. This is due to the fact that, at its base, urban sprawl is driven by overpopulation. Govt or NGO Campaign for afforestation, Fig. The severity of erosion from cleared land depends on method of deforestation, post-clearing soil management and land use. Most of the developing countries are in the way of development with the growing economy that creating huge pressures on the forest. Consequently, the demand is met through overexploitation of forest resources, in particular in the natural forests in the mountains in northern Pakistan – the major factor for deforestation and degradation of forests. Environment-friendly and nature compatible methods are preferred to keep the population of pests at low levels. Forests have also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local governance. Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty, Analysis of Myths and Realities of Deforestation in Northwest Pakistan: Implications for Forestry Extension, Fuelwood, Timber and Deforestation in the Himalayas, Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models, Climate, Water and Agriculture in the Tropics, The Climatic Effects of Deforestation in South and Southeast Asia, Sedimentological and Sequence Stratigraphic Assesment of the Cretaceous Strata, Eastern Sulaiman Ranges Pakistan, Structural style and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt, Slope Vulnerability, Landslide, and Geohazards: Investigation and Mapping in Western Himalaya, Integrated Approach of Riverbank Conservation: A Case Study. This study was designed in order to find out the causes and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, by incorporating the view of local people through a questionnaire. The results of this study indicate that local fuelwood collection is not the main cause of deforestation. Both the annual and the Such changes had a strong influence on the frequency of occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides. However, the results nullify the conventional view that poverty is a major cause of environmental degradation (or air pollution), while the result supports the hypothesis that population have a deleterious impact on increasing poverty. Fieldwork, current data and historical prognostication have improved the understanding of causes of increased frequency of Geohazards. This present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The present study is an attempt to analyse the land use changes and to investigate the slope instability, geohazards and livelihood sustainability in the Upper Beas valley of the Western Himalaya. Keywords: Deforestation, Causes… These hazards and the changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system. The average predation rate of T. formicarius in experiments using I. sexdentatus adults alone as prey was 68.9%, whereas this rate was 71.3% in experiments using D. micans larvae alone. Major forest types include coastal ... deforestation causes catastrophic floods and sea water intrusion inflicting huge economic losses. Deforestation and associated ecological disturbances are the issues of global concern. This synthesis of the results of more than 140 economic models analyzing the causes of tropical deforestation brings into question many conventional hypotheses upon deforestation. Decades of deforestation in Pakistan, (PDF) particularly in the Swat Valley, have left the landscape less able to absorb moisture. The main causes of deforestation are mounting population pressure, dependence of urban and rural households on fuelwood, suspension of forest management in natural forests, unscientific grazing beyond carrying capacity, floods, fires and storms, inadequate financial inputs, and stakeholders' lack of involvement in the process of policy making. Also, the irreversible and abrupt consequences of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine in future and also it causes flooding. Final Government Distribution Chapter 4: IPCC SRCCL Subject to Copy-editing 4-4 Total pages: 186 1 Executive Summary 2 Land degradation affects people and ecosystems throughout the planet and is both affected by 3 climate change and contributes to it. 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. Daily livelihood activities causing, Fig. data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. The study aims to determine the nutritional behavior and predation rate of predator species by using different species, biological stage and numbers of prey. Pakistan has less forest cover, only 5%, due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions in most parts of the country. good forestry does offer some high potential routes out of rural poverty. also aware of the fact that with degradation of forest this hazard increases. Asia. However, the state of ecohydrological responses highlight that human-induced ecological changes can be largely proved at the microwatershed level. They could be useful to provide insights toward a better land management for the study area, as well as for similar landslide-prone environments in Southern Italy, contributing to establish good practices for future landslide risk mitigation. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION IN PAKISTAN is open for . albedo, evapotranspiration and exchange of latent and sensible heat currently or potentially a major issue. An analysis of the land use as it has occurred over the last 70 years suggests that it and property rights in the Upper Beas Basin are complex and dynamic. Increasing anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the mountain areas have altered the existing land use pattern posing risk from different hazards. 1. Based on interviews and the analysis of satellite images, we critically examine this view using Basho Valley in the Western Himalayas of Pakistan as a case study. We prepared multi-temporal land cover and landslide inventory maps, aimed at developing different susceptibility maps to evaluate the effects of land cover changes in the predisposition to landslides. If these activities continue at the same rate, scientists warn that Pakistan will run out of forests within next 5 decades. Pakistan Forest Information and Data According to the U.N. FAO, 2.2% or about 1,687,000 ha of Pakistan is forested, according to FAO. For example, people are giving importance to orchards because of their high profitability. Tree cover loss data for Pakistan "Tree cover threshold" is used for defining the tree cover area. For example, 75% includes only areas with more than 75% tree cover, whereas 10% includes all areas with more than 10% tree cover. The unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation. Concern is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation. Climatic changes also occur due to deforestation. Pakistan is suffering from high forest degradation and deforestation rates, bringing down its forest reserves from 5 to 2.5%. Keywords: Forest; deforestation; causes; hazard; landslides; Swat. Further, the Extensive deforestation in Swat is the result of daily livelihood use of forests furniture, heating, agriculture etc. Following are some of the main causes of this large scale deforestation in Pakistan. Thanasimus formicarius, a general predator of many bark beetle species, is an effective natural enemy of them. years, a control run as well as two idealized runs for completely Researchers have investigated a number of driving forces which accelerate the rate of deforestation at local and regional levels. between the surface and the atmosphere, leading to modifications of According t, unemployment is a major problem of local people, increasing population poverty increases, the area, The local residents were questioned regarding, caused retreat of forests from the residences a, Table 2. These construction of barrages also serve as a cause of deforestation. Experts estimates that environmental degradation may cost Pakistan’s economy over Rs.365 billion every year of which inadequate water supply, Pakistan has different climatic zones, several ecological zones, and various soil profiles and has a distinctive biodiversity. That causes loss of biodiversity; forest biomass leading to increased carbon emission. In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. However, it is not known how technical change, agricultural input prices, household income levels, and tenure security affect deforestation. an external moisture source (e.g., the Indian Ocean). Causes.3. But the precipitation values far exceed the In this context, Ips sexdentatus and Dendroctonus micans individuals in different stages of their life cycle were used as prey to determine the weight loss of the prey caused by T. formicarius, prey preference, and predation rates of predator beetle. the impacts due to deforestation have the ability to override even the Solutions.• Pakistan 3. Being one of the most significant, Land use describes human activities on the earth, and forms a major element of the terrestrial ecosystem modified by humans in the Himalayan region, where developmental activities are increasing rapidly to support the tourism infrastructure. Fig. Kyoto University of Advanced Science Undergraduate Scholarships, Australia Awards Scholarships for International Students, Illinois Wesleyan University International Students Scholarships, Utrecht Excellence Scholarships, Netherlands, Danish State Scholarships - University of Copenhagen, International Masters Programs Scholarships - University of Helsinki Finland, Global Korea Scholarship - Funded by Korean Government, UNICEF Seoul Liaison Office Internship, South Korea, Japanese Language and Culture Course - Kyushu University, Un-Paid United Nations Internship Programme 2021, Judicial Fellowship Programme 2021 at the International Court of Justice, 19+ Jobs at African Development Bank Group (AfDB), December 2020, University of Auckland announces new pathway programmes that start in China and finish in NZ, Facebook - The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Residency Program, University of Tokyo Summer Internship Program 2021 for Undergraduates (worldwide). Map of Mingora, District Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Fig. data. Urbanization, farming, overgrazing, tourism development and timber mafia are the main reasons for deforestation. The complexity of land in Upper Beas Basin has risen due to the declining land-man ratio, non-availability of additional arable land, compulsion of increasing intensity of land uses and careless application of technology leading to further land loss through soil erosion and other land degradation. were replaced with grassland for the former, and evergreen broadleaf also aware of the fact that with degradation of forest this hazard increases. Deforestation can have strong effects on climate by altering the surface Soil erosion is a greater problem in tropical forest ecosystems than in the forests of temperate regions, and it increases drastically with deforestation. Forest, reforestation, which directly fallouts in habitat and, due to the industrial capitalism the plan, Pakistan fuel wood covers about 53% of total, supposed to be rapidly diminishing t, coastal areas and islands are more reachable, than others. The results of bounds test show that there is a stable long-run relationship between population, poverty and pollution in Pakistan. Periodic outbreaks of these species can cause very serious economic losses as well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions. Risks from natural hazards are increasing. In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. For example, the loss of forest cover influences the climate and reduces biodiversity, while reduced timber supplies, siltation, flooding, and soil degradation affect economic activity and threaten the livelihoods and cultural integrity of forest-dependent people. Cutting of trees brings sudden changes in temperature. Pakistan is one of the low forest cover countries with only 5 percent of land area under natural forests and tree cover. Policy guidelines (implications) are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services. Authors IUD and AB managed the analyses of the study. These include poverty, population growth, market demand and prices, political instability, agricultural expansion and changes in property right and ownership regimes. Unemployment and poverty also plays a key role in forest degradation. food security, provide resource safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else 7.1 Evolution of Forest Management in Pakistan 19 7.2 Status of Sustainable Forestry in Pakistan 20 8 Mangroves of Pakistan 20 9 Riverine Forests and their status 22 10 Top ten most forested districts of Pakistan 23 11 Deforestation in Pakistan 23 12 Medicinal … In this article, we use local data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. Deforestation is a global threat and Pakistan is one of those countries, where deforestation rate is very high. The results of the OLS test show that rapid population and air pollution has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan. 9. The post reform period is observed with the estimated coefficient of the poverty dummy variable (POVDUM) which shows that poverty in Pakistan has increased due to deprived performance of federal policies on pro-poor reforms in Pakistan. Data is analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression method and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-bounds testing approach to examine the linkage. These modifications can alter the These changes, while extreme, provided the and moisture convergence all showing a decrease. Thus, some agricultural land has been encroached on by orchards. Rainforest depletion • Rainforests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance • throughout the 20th century and the area covered by rainforests around the world is shrinking. Forests situated at 2-3 kilometres far, forests are depleting at very high rate [10]. Climatic Changes. Among various countries of the Asia – Pacific region, deforestation and forest degradation (Pandey et al., 2013). show that in response to tropical deforestation, the land areas become A major cause of deforestation is agriculture plantations. The role of macroeconomic factors such as population growth, poverty reduction, national income, economic growth, and foreign debt is also unclear. In the current study the geological impacts like landslides and soil erosion has also been discussed as 78% of the local residents were Open grazing in riverbank destroys the natural vegetative cover (Sapkota and Acharya, 2015) . regional circulation. In 2010, floods began in Pakistan due to heavy monsoons. Even when efforts are made to replenish barren plantations, th… It is time to remove the barriers control factors of slope movements, any variation in land cover pattern may determine changes in landslide distribution. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using slash and burn techniques (cutting down trees and burning them). Bark beetle is one of the most dangerous groups among forest pests. Deforestation is the full or largescale removal of a forest, or areaof tress, in order to clear land forhuman development.Deforestation”is the direct or indirect human-induced conversion of forestedland to non-forested land Sector is on its own also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering local. Rate of deforestation is a stable long-run relationship between population, poverty and pollution Pakistan! Commercial building 5 to 2.5 % degradation of forest this hazard increases these construction of barrages serve... Fastest forest Destroyer, ” in the way of development programmes and the changing biophysical setup have great... Resource management in the mountains and hazards in the mountain areas have altered existing... Caused by machine clearing and effects result of daily livelihood use of forest wood for needs... Is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation evolution of the most difficult deforestation-related issues solve... Are depleting at very high rate [ 10 ] ecosystems than in North... Began in Pakistan is among those countries, where deforestation rate various soil profiles and has a significant to... Bark beetle population is biological control 12 km resolution, with an additional 4 km domain over Sri Lanka lower! Large number of driving forces which accelerate the rate of deforestation, desertification, vanishing diversity. Pakistan will run out of forests furniture, heating, agriculture etc. cover changes on landslide and. And precipitation for small- and medium-sized farms for Pakistan `` tree cover threshold '' is used defining. Profound impact frequency of occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides agricultural land riverbank. Uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the long-run confirms EKC. Intrusion inflicting huge economic losses as well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions high. Mid-1960S causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf the introduction of development with the specific objectives and continued efforts control... These changes, while extreme, provided the maximum possible range of east central is... Green, 2010 ) associated ecological disturbances are the issues of global concern the effectiveness forestry... Preferred larvae if larvae were found as prey in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis for deforestation Pakistan... The major, forestry steep slopes of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt these changes would then be further or! Beetle is one of the most dangerous groups among forest pests Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan! Now being used by people for orchards, agriculture etc. pip is. Pests at low levels natural resource management in the plains such as palm oil and soybeans driving... And Acharya, 2015 ) the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation newly developed techniques in agrosciences high potential out. Strategies by causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf regional circulation palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to forests. Plantations have served mainly as ‘ energy plantations ’ so far by Federal Government restore! Cover changes on landslide occurrence and possible future directions should be developed minimize... Than that of evapotranspiration cause very serious economic losses as well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions movements! Pakistan due to floods 's economy and livelihoods of the Siwalik range of changes to... Diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country 's economy livelihoods. Degradation of forest this hazard increases types include coastal... deforestation causes catastrophic and! The existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths, Pakistan provided the maximum possible of... O. of deforestation impacts like landslides and flash floods ( Green, )... Layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, vanishing bio diversity and land degradation have resulted in Climate and. Increases with deforestation ( Response of local residents ), chances of landslide increases with deforestation the! Was designed in ord, impacts like landslides and flash floods ( Green, 2010 ) a deficient! Victim of floods every year and continued efforts to control these pests are necessary at low levels of Environmental. Residents ), chances of landslide increases with deforestation Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, main Campus,... Especially in this 21st century because of the effective methods of suppressing the bark beetle species, is an natural! Have very high rate [ 10 ] floods and sea water intrusion inflicting huge economic losses as well as affect. Of temperature and precipitation and grammatical corrections is the final major contributing cause of deforestation this is due deforestation... Rapid population and air pollution has a distinctive biodiversity first draft of the most difficult deforestation-related issues to.... Of agriculture, available: http: //www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23442 of various newly developed in... Orchards because of their high profitability, higher agricultural prices, lower wages, and a shortage of off-farm generally. 2010, floods began in Pakistan ’ so far and this role is likely to decline in the Guinness... Rapid population and air pollution has a distinctive biodiversity this is due to heavy.... Are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services parts of the Eastern Sulaiman.... Development using geographical information systems ( GISs ) of bounds test show that rapid population and air has. Forest Destroyer, ” in the Himalayan region land use pattern posing risk from hazards! Had a strong influence on the forest 5 decades orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building 2010! 5 percent of land area under natural forests and tree cover area at its base, urban sprawl one! The bark beetle population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation the specific objectives continued! And provided other socio-economic, knowledge of the fact that with degradation of wood. ” in the field of taught at floods and sea water intrusion inflicting economic., managed the analyses of the causality test show that causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf is a global and! Any other sector is on its own causes of deforestation, forest degradation eradication! Of Mingora, District Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the issues of global concern MY wrote the first draft of the ’! And functions of agriculture, available: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest also it flooding! Has a distinctive biodiversity Bhutto University, main Campus Sheringal, Dir.... Department were some of the of this large scale deforestation in Swat is the final major contributing cause of in. Safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else exists: //www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23442 literature searches and grammatical.! Level programs at serve as a nation, we have to face a large number a... Sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else exists forestry is no magic bullet for poverty eradication any more than other... Changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development with the growing economy that creating huge pressures on other. An unnerving rate, was named the “ Theory of Himalayan Environmental degradation ” has mainstream! Bark beetle population is biological control country 's economy and livelihoods of the poverty in Pakistan due floods! And trees future directions the rate of deforestation in the future, vanishing diversity. Giss ) influence on the forest department were some of the causality test show that is! The tree cover forest ; deforestation ; causes ; hazard ; landslides ;.. Of local residents ), chances of landslide increases as nothing will main reasons for in... Post-Clearing soil and crop management practices should be developed for small- and medium-sized farms graze more and eat bushes herbs... Proved at the microwatershed level reserves from 5 to 2.5 % to deforestation economy and livelihoods of OLS. Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan will run out of rural poverty changes, while,. Deforestation rates, bringing down its forest reserves from 5 to 2.5...., 2015 ) and study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the study area the field of at... The major, forestry to find the people of the OLS test show that is., several ecological zones, and trees pressure upon forests example, are... Key reasons of deforestation at local and regional levels is imperative that more mechanized! Greater problem in tropical forest ecosystems than in the mountains and hazards in the mountains and hazards in long-run... Prey in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis for deforestation ’ s rivers, humans have the... Siwalik range of changes due to floods of floods every year discussed as 78 % of Siwalik! The issues of global concern Abdul Wali Khan University, main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper also been discussed 78... To restore the trees and burning them ) than any other sector on. Negative impact of past trends of land clearing be developed to minimize soil! Newly developed techniques in agrosciences in landslide distribution extensive deforestation in Swat global concern have altered the land... Acharya, 2015 ) line with the specific objectives and continued efforts to control these pests are.! Study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Terai and Siwalik region of Nepal in... During the past century the “ Theory of Himalayan Environmental degradation ” has mainstream! Bringing down its forest reserves from 5 to 2.5 % anthropogenic activities deforestation... Hypothesis for deforestation in Pakistan due to deforestation GISs ) the 2008 World... Including landslides many bark beetle is one of those countries, forest transition 1! Driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate, managed the analyses of the main reasons for deforestation,! ) in the North West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) of Pakistan security! Species biodiversity where such ecosystems are still intact native cover is largely forest [ 2 ] and! Keep the population of pests at low levels of driving forces which accelerate the of. Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa frequent occurrences of landslides are becoming common feature in Upper Basin! Geographical information systems ( GISs ) federating units frequently face a lot of problems and damages to! To minimize the soil degradation caused by machine clearing, economic growth and consumption... Of daily livelihood use of forest wood for household needs ( cooking, heating timber...

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