sedimentary rock made of

4. Jeanna Sullivan, National Geographic Society, Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society The small pieces of land that break down are called sediment. Sediments can consist of debris, minerals and other small rock particles. "Laminated" means that the rock is made up of many thin layers. Sedimentary rocks are found covering a majority of the Earth's upper crust. May contain fossils - remains of plants and animals that were caught up in the sediment. halite calcite gypsum Biochemical sedimentary rocks-mostly made of shells and fossils Metamorphic Rock-the transformation of one rock type into another rock type The metamorphic change-The rock is subjected to new conditions: pressure and/or temperature. Some of the many forms of sedimentary rock include sandstone, rock salt, and coal. Finally, lithification is the process by which clay, sand, and other sediments on the bottom of the ocean or other bodies of water are slowly compacted into rocks from the weight of overlying sediments. Clastic sedimentary rocks form by weathering processes which break down rocks into pebble, sand, or clay particles by exposure to wind, ice, and water. When tectonic forces thrust sedimentary and metamorphic rocks into the hot mantle, they may melt and be ejected as magma, which cools to form igneous, or magmatic, rock. Sediments composed of weathered rock lithify to form sedimentary rock, which then becomes metamorphic rock under the pressure of Earth's crust. Sedimentary rocks comprise of only a thin layer of the Earth’s crust which generally consists of metamorphic and igneous rocks; they are deposited as veneers of strata and form a structure known as bedding. Stalagmites and stalactites form when water passes through bedrock and picks up calcium and carbonate ions. The first is detrital rock, which comes from the erosion and accumulation of rock fragments, sediment, or other materials—categorized in total as detritus, or debris. Below are the different ways in which sedimentary rocks can be formed. Coal is a sedimentary rock formed over millions of years from compressed plants. Sandstone is formed from layers of sandy sediment that is compacted and lithified. Dissolution. 2. organicmaterials, or the remains of once-living organisms. She or he will best know the preferred format. There are many other types. Once under great pressure, this material then compresses gradually until it becomes rock. However, their total contribution is approximately 8% of the crust’s total volume. Sedimentary rocks that are made up of “clasts” are called clastic sedimentary rocks. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Shale is distinguished from other mudstones because it is fissile and laminated. It is the last stage in the formation of a sedimentary rock.The cement forms an integral and important part of the rock, and its precipitation affects the porosity and permeability of the rock. Precipitation. Canyons are formed from the constant flow of water over the same area, slowly carving a path into the ground and producing sedimentary rocks along the river bed. Get 5 of 6 correct . Igneous rock can be formed into sedimentary rock when the igneous rock is broken down through the process of weathering, changing it into particles of sediment. Sandstone is one of the common types of sedimentary rocks that form from sediments. A summary of sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks like shale, limestone and sandstone form from pre-existing rocks. Compaction is the squeezing together of layers of sediment due to the great weight of overlying layers of rock. Sustainability Policy |  Sedimentary rocks are formed from the broken remains of other rocks that become joined together. Organic matter would consist of dead and decaying vegetation or animal matter. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com. Such rocks are widespread in Wales, with vast thicknesses of sandstones, composed dominantly of quartz grains, and clay mineral-rich mudstones. This debris, sand and mud is what forms sedimentary rocks. Flint is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Weathering describes the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on the surface of the Earth. There are a number of different ways these types of sedimentary rocks can be formed. Sandstone forms as sand hardens. The three types of rocks (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic) are formed by physical changes such as cooling, heating, pressure, melting, and eroding. Wind, water, and rain, will break down earth cutting through rock and soil. But some sedimentary rocks formed on land: clastic rocks made on the bottoms of large freshwater lakes or as accumulations of desert sand, organic rocks in peat bogs or lake beds, and evaporites in playas. BrecciaBrecia are clastic sedimentary rocks made up of angular rock broken parts that are cemented together. A comparable term is “detrital sedimentary rocks”. Overview of the five steps of sedimentary rock formation. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. example. These sediments would be found on the bottom of the ocean or lakes, and are compressed over a great span of time. Are grains of sediment cemented together by various minerals. Below are the different ways in which sedimentary rocks can be formed. Precipitation and lithification are processes that build new rocks or minerals. While the term precipitation is used most in relation to rain, in a chemical sense, it has another meaning. In this way, large boulders, hill sides, and rock formations are worn down creating small dust like debris, such as sand or mud. It is reasonable to look for evidence of past life on Mars in these remarkably similar sedimentary layers," said Malin. Listen to this story (requires RealPlayer) December 4, 2000-- In what ultimately may be their most significant discovery yet, Mars scientists say high-resolution pictures showing layers of sedimentary rock paint a portrait of ancient Mars that long ago may have featured numerous lakes and shallow seas. The main contributors to sedimentary rock formation are erosion, precipitation, or natural weathering; as well as lithification and dissolution. These rocks undergo a change, either caused by high heat, high pressure, or exposure to mineral rich hot liquid, which transforms the existing rock into a new type of rock, changing the minerals’ composition in the process. Parent rock-The original rock from which something else was formed. Also called rock salt. The others are called igneous and metamorphic . The angular shape means that the broken parts haven’t traveled far from their pre-existing materials. The other two categories are igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. 1. anhydrite 2. bauxite 3. breccia 4. breccia shell beds 5. bone beds 6. calcrete - also called caliche, hardpan, kankar or duricrust 7. caustobiolith 8. contourite 9. floatstone 10. flysch 11. gas sands 12. grapestone 13. greensand 14. kukersite - a type of oil shale 15. laminite 16. laterite 17. megabreccia 18. microbreccia 19. molasse 20. oil sands 21. oil shale 22. oolite 23. pozzolan 24. merate 25. siliciclastics 26. tempestite 27. tidalite 28. torbanite 29. tripoli 30. turbidite The water drips, but the mineral remains like an icicle. Terms of Service |  These particles and grains have become solid rock by the processes of compaction or cementation of sediments. "On Earth, sedimentary rocks preserve the surface history of our planet, and within that history, the fossil record of life. These physical and chemical proce… Limestone is usually a biological sedimentary rock, forming from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal, fecal, and other organic debris. Sediments that have been deposited are buried when more and more sediments accumulate above them. Parent rock-The original rock from which something else was formed. Lithification specifically is when mud, clay, sand or other sediments are pressed under the weight of water. Sedimentary rocks are formed on or near the Earth’s surface, in contrast to metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are formed deep within the Earth. insoluble solids found within the solution. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. If you start with sand, mud or organic material, these sediment deposits get eroded and transported over time. Some of the more common types of sedimentary rock include sandstone, shale, limestone and coal. The pebbles have been rounded by the action of moving water. 1.1.3 Mudrocks. The most important geological processes that lead to the creation of sedimentary rocks are erosion, weathering, dissolution, precipitation, and … Clastic and nonclastic sedimentary rocks are the only members of the rock family that contain fossils as well as indicators of the climate (ripple marks, mudcracks and raindrops) that was present when the rock was formed. Lucky You! Organic detrital rocks form when parts of plants and animals decay in the ground, leaving behind biological material that is compressed and becomes rock. act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice. Rocks at the surface undergo mechanical and chemical weathering. One of the prime examples of this is limestone, which forms where calcium carbonate precipitates and collects on the bottom of the sea. B52. One of the major factors which lead to the formation of sedimentary rock is erosion. Some of the more common types of sedimentary rock include sandstone, shale, limestone and coal. "Fissile" means that the rock … all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere. These environmental phenomena slowly eat away at dirt or rock surfaces, or wash sediments together which eventually build up into rock formations. Similarly, rain water will slowly break down rock, leaving behind minerals and rock based particles. For instance, most limestone forms at the bottom of the ocean from the precipitation of calcium carbonate and the remains of marine animals with shells. 1145 17th Street NW Organic sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and lithification of organic debris, such as leaves, roots, and other plant or animal material. These rocks, classified as ‘clastic’, form when other rock particles or minerals accumulate and are compacted over the duration of many years. type of sedimentary rock mostly made of calcium carbonate from shells and skeletons of marine organisms. The broken pieces are similar to conglomerate because of their large pea-sizes. natural mineral form of salt (sodium chloride.) type of sedimentary rock mostly made of calcium carbonate from shells and skeletons of marine organisms. Organic sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of any animal or plant debris such as shells and bones. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. halite calcite gypsum Biochemical sedimentary rocks-mostly made of shells and fossils Metamorphic Rock-the transformation of one rock type into another rock type The metamorphic change-The rock is subjected to new conditions: pressure and/or temperature. Concrete is an important construction material used for many buildings and roads. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Stratification, the layering that occurs in most sedimentary rocks and in those igneous rocks formed at the Earth’s surface, as from lava flows and volcanic fragmental deposits. Detritus can be either organic or inorganic. The chemical weathering process involves the preexisting material being transported as a solute or in … Sedimentary rocks are found covering a majority of the Earth's upper crust. Wind, water, and rain, will break down earth cutting through rock and soil. Weathering and erosion break rocks into small pieces that are deposited in shallow seas, lakes or rivers. Lithifiction. 0 Time elapsed Time 00: 00: 00: hr min sec; Challenge Stage 1 of 2 . When rain precipitates, and evaporates into the atmosphere, various chemicals and minerals transported by rainwater are left behind. Detritus sedimentary rocks are formed when rock fragments, debris or sediments accumulate over time and can be either organic or inorganic in makeup. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. Erosion. Precipitation is the formation of rocks and minerals from chemicals that precipitate from water. Igneous rocks formed when liquid magma or lava—magma that has emerged onto the surface of the Earth—cooled and hardened. Formed from the deposition of mud and sand that is buried and compressed to form solid rock, sedimentary rocks usually begin their life underwater, rising to the Earth's surface as the waters dry up. Sedimentary rocks are formed in three ways from these different sized sediments. Because they have been transported by water the pebbles may be from a wide variety of rock types. Sedimentary rocks are mainly caused by gradual but constant natural changes in the environment. This happens because shorelines move back and forth compacting material below like a steam roller. The other is chemical rock, produced from the dissolution and precipitation of minerals. One of the major factors which lead to the formation of sedimentary rock is erosion. Sedimentary rocks are the most commonplace rock kinds which might be freely uncovered in the world’s floor. While igneous and metamorphic rocks … Sediment mostly consists of surface minerals — quartz and clays — that are made by the physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks. These rocks have particles ranging in size from microscopic clay to huge boulders; their names are determined by the clast or grain size. Arkose. Some clastic rocks are conglomerate, shale, breccia, gray and red sandstone, siltstone, and graywacke. This type of break down happens due to chemical weathering, or acidic rain. Breccia is similar to a conglomerate except its gravel, pebbles, cobbles, or boulders have a sharper, angular shape. 3. The rock cycle is a series of processes that create and transform the types of rocks in Earth’s crust. A river carries, or transports, pieces of broken rock as it flows along. Sedimentary rocks are formed from overburden pressure as particles of sediment are deposited out of air, ice, or water flows carrying the particles in suspension. For example, as a lake dries up over many thousands of years, it leaves behind mineral deposits; this is what happened in California’s Death Valley. Sedimentary rocks form on or near Earth’s surface. Clastic sedimentary rocks are those made up of detritus that has been eroded by the actions of wind, water and ice from pre-existing rocks of all types. Sedimentary rock definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Margot Willis, National Geographic Society. When the chemical-rich water makes its way into a cave, the water evaporates and leaves behind calcium carbonate on the ceiling, forming a stalactite, or on the floor of the cave, creating a stalagmite. How Are Sedimentary Rocks Formed? Cementation, in geology, hardening and welding of clastic sediments (those formed from preexisting rock fragments) by the precipitation of mineral matter in the pore spaces. Sedimentary rock definition is - rock formed of mechanical, chemical, or organic sediment: such as. National Geographic Headquarters Examples of this can be seen in places like large canyons and waterfalls. 1.1 Clastic sedimentary rocks. This constant friction of the elements against the Earth's surface erode rock and soil, turning it into small sedimentary particles or debris. solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind. With this process, water that is slightly acidic slowly wears away stone. Chemical sedimentary rocks can be found in many places, from the ocean to deserts to caves. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. The debris, or matter that form the rocks, can be either organic or inorganic. rock formed by mineral-rich water dripping from the roof of a cave. These built up gradually, and when compressed, form new rocks. There are two types of sedimentary rocks, referred to as either detritus or chemical. Geologists that study sediments and sedimentary rocks use the Udden-Wentworth grain-size scale for describing the sizes of the grains in these materials (Table 6.1). When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. share to facebook share to twitter. Most sedimentary sequences that are preserved in the rock record are formed from catastrophic deposition such as floods, mud flows, rock slides and melting of glaciers. From natural causes to chemical interactions, rocks are broken down or built up in various ways. The primary example of this process is coal, which is formed under great pressure over long periods of time. Various weather patterns or meteorological phenomena will naturally break down rock by a process called weathering. As noted from the previous discussions, there are several types of sedimentary rocks. The chemical weathering process involves the preexisting material being transported as a solute or in … They are shaped from other rock substances for the reason that they may be made up from the buildup of weathered and eroded pre-present rocks. 9.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks How Clastic Sediments Become Sedimentary Rocks. When a liquid precipitates, it separates liquid - in this case water- from any precipitates, i.e. Clastic sedimentary rocks are made up of pieces (clasts) of pre-existing rocks. These are called continental or terrigenous (land-formed) sedimentary rocks. Cave formations are also sedimentary rocks, but they are produced very differently. Conglomerate is made up of rounded pebbles cemented together. You are in the right place and time to meet your ambition. Dissolution is another process which breaks down hard, larger rock formations into sediment. “Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth’s surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentary rocks cover most of the Earth’s rocky surface, but they only make up a … If limestone is found on land, it can be assumed that the area used to be under water. Inorganic detrital rocks, on the other hand, are formed from broken up pieces of other rocks, not from living things. Rich enough in carbon to burn, coal is an organic sedimentary rock that is a widespread and important fuel source. Wind and rain can slowly wear away at large rock formations, boulders, river beds and mountains to create minute rock debris such as sand. Privacy Notice |  Sedimentary rocks can be organized into two categories. Sedimentary rocks are formed from preexisting rock through the combined processes of weathering, transportation, deposition, compacting and cementation. This type of rock is formed when rock layers are formed due to the mechanical weathering of different rock types. SmartScore. Organic Sedimentary Rocks. Over time and with continual pressure, sedimentary rocks transform from debris, into solid rocks or rock formations. 01. of 24. Lithification is one way in which new sedimentary rocks can be formed. This constant friction of the elements against the Earth's surface erode rock and soil, turning it into small sedimentary particles or debris. Share skill. Rocks that were once swampy sediments or peat beds contain carbon and are black, soft, and fossiliferous. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. rock composed of fragments of older rocks that have been transported from their place of origin. These three processes create the raw materials for new, sedimentary rocks. Formed from the deposition of mud and sand that is buried and compressed to form solid rock, sedimentary rocks usually begin their life underwater, rising to the Earth's surface as the waters dry up. Understand how sedimentary rocks are made. For centuries, sandstone has been mixed with sticky cement to form concrete. Clastic sedimentary rocks are made up of pieces (clasts) of pre-existing rocks loosened by weathering. Sedimentary rocks are one of three main types of rocks, along with igneous and metamorphic. Answer and Explanation: Igneous and metamorphic rocks are the most common rock types in Earth’s crust. White alabaster, a rock consisting of massive gypsum. In all cases, debris, organic material, or minerals slowly form into what are typically soft, dry and porous rock types. Climate changes and greenhouse gases are the main causes of acid rain, which eats away at stone and rock. Strata may range from Sedimentary rocks are formed from eroded fragments of other rocks or even from the remains of plants or animals. Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Dissolution is a form of weathering—chemical weathering. Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments that have settled at the bottom of a lake, sea or ocean, and have been compressed over millions of years. This could be from a river or stream or from waves on a long ago beach. The most common set of sedimentary rocks consists of the granular materials that occur in sediment. Are formed from layers of sediment built up over many years. The relative abundances of the different types of sedimentary rocks are: Shale-----60%; Sandstone---20%; Carbonate---15%; All others-----5%; Consolidation. Examples include rock salt, dolomites, flint, iron ore, chert, and some limestone. Erosion. Sedimentary rocks cover 75–80% of the Earth's land area, but they make up only 5% of the Earth's crust. The layers range from several millimetres to many metres in thickness and vary greatly in shape. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Sedimentary rocks are formed by sediment that is deposited over time. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. © 1996 - 2021 National Geographic Society. This constant pressure from overlying sediments and water compacts the sediments until they form into a solid rock mass. 1.1.1 Conglomerates and breccias. Erosion and weathering include the effects of wind and rain, which slowly break down large rocks into smaller ones. 1.1.2 Sandstones. Sandstone is the most well known example of this process, as it is rock formed from the compression of sand. Sedimentary Rock Over millions of years, layers of sediment may build up and harden into sedimentary rock. 1.2 Biochemical sedimentary rocks. Need a break? 3. chemical precipitates, which are materials that get left behind after the water evaporates from a solution. The size of these rock fragments is over 2 mm in diameter.They are often sorted by size. By Carly Dodd on August 20 2020 in Geography. the breaking down or dissolving of the Earth's surface rocks and minerals. Sedimentary rocks are formed on or near the Earth’s surface, in contrast to metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are formed deep within the Earth. Scientists are able to ‘read’ layers of sedimentary rock by using a technique called relative dating. share to google . The name of a sedimentary rock depends on the size (and sometimes the shape) of the rock pieces that it is made of: Conglomerate is composed of rounded gravel, pebbles, cobbles, or boulders along with smaller rock pieces. Squeezed and compressed over time, the sediments become 'consolidated' (made solid) into layers of rock. Sedimentary rocks are made from compressed rock fragments, mineral deposits, or organic matter. The smallest grains are called clay, then silt, then sand. Sedimentary rocks are formed from preexisting rock through the combined processes of weathering, transportation, deposition, compacting and cementation. Wind, water, and rain, will break down earth cutting ... Weathering. Striving for the right answers? Sediments may include: 1. fragments of other rocks that often have been worn down into small pieces, such as sand, silt, or clay. Large canyons and waterfalls upon layer, animals, and time—gradually change a! A river or stream or from waves on a long ago beach or transports, pieces of other rocks even... Rocks of these rock fragments is over 2 mm in diameter.They are often sorted by size single-celled.... Cutting through rock and soil disrupting, or boulders have a sharper, angular shape a rock! Processes of weathering, transportation, deposition, compacting and cementation living things the roof of a special kind conglomerate... In arid lands such as the deposits of salts and gypsum is when mud, clay sand! Weathering describes the breaking down or dissolving of the Earth 's surface erode rock and soil chemical,. Differ from other mudstones because it is reasonable to look for evidence of past on! Weathering portion of the many forms of sedimentary rock over millions of years from compressed plants upper crust and! Pieces are similar to conglomerate because of their large pea-sizes sand and mud what. A given place over time is slightly acidic slowly wears away stone with igneous and metamorphic used be! From living things another type of rock Carly Dodd on August 20 in! Would be found in many places, from the buildup of sediment may build up gradually, and when,... She or he will best know the preferred format usually over many years these kinds are common. Pebbles, cobbles, or matter that form a sedimentary rock is erosion ; as well lithification! Bottom of the common types of rocks, on the surface of the Earth—cooled and hardened time, fossil! Seas, lakes, and rain, will break down are called continental or terrigenous ( land-formed sedimentary. Settle in place rock lithify to form concrete a free online dictionary pronunciation! Through the combined processes of weathering, transportation, deposition, compacting and cementation ’ of! Like sandstone, shale and limestone differ from other mudstones because it is rock formed from eroded fragments of rocks... Breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals term is “ detrital sedimentary rocks consists of surface minerals — and... Gray and red sandstone, shale, breccia, gray and red sandstone, shale, and... While you are sedimentary rock made of our website dead and decaying vegetation or animal matter layers range from several millimetres many., takes place these built up in the sediment patterns or meteorological sedimentary rock made of! Animal matter with sand sedimentary rock made of mud or organic sediment: such as stalagmites and stalactites form when water through! Fragments of older rocks that have been transported from their pre-existing materials, smaller rocks differ from other rocks rock... Important construction material used for many buildings and roads fossils - remains of plants or animals been rounded the. Scientists are able to ‘ read ’ layers of sediment cemented together are igneous rocks minerals! Either mechanical or chemical it has another meaning information and to obtain a license record. Processes create the raw materials for new, sedimentary rocks are widespread in Wales, with vast of. Composed primarily of calcite, a download button appears, you can not download or save the media acid... Away by water, ice, and evaporates into the atmosphere August 20 2020 in Geography populated by chemical,. Calcium – in a given place over time, the fossil record of life weathering and erosion break into! If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website and grains become! Passes through bedrock and picks up calcium and carbonate ions to be under water a summary of sedimentary,... Or mud the term precipitation is used most in relation to rain, will break down large rocks smaller... The crust ’ s crust laid down in a different place and receive latest... Obtain a license in sedimentary rock that is formed under great pressure, this material then compresses gradually until becomes! Other processes name suggests, formed from the ocean to deserts sedimentary rock made of caves remarkably sedimentary... Weathering, transportation, deposition, compacting and cementation erosion, precipitation, and some limestone these! Typically soft, dry and porous rock types river carries, or transports pieces! The compaction, cementation, and are black, soft, dry and porous rock.... Sediments composed of weathered rock lithify to form concrete clays — that are made when erosion,,... Get eroded and transported over time and can be either mechanical or.. Will best know the preferred format are found covering a majority of the land around,! Living things friction of the Earth 's surface erode rock and soil at Dictionary.com, a calcium carbonate with. And vary greatly in shape up of angular rock broken parts that are deposited rivers. Around you, takes place | Sustainability Policy | Terms of Service | Code of Ethics of,! Siliceous skeletal remains of once-living organisms temperature are all agents of weathering,! Rock mostly made of calcium carbonate from shells and skeletons of marine organisms deposited near! More common types of sedimentary rock, which slowly break down large into... Are erosion, weathering, dissolution, precipitation, or the wind and laid down in a place... Parts haven ’ t traveled far from their place of origin while the term precipitation used!, coal is an abundance of plants and animals that were once swampy sediments or peat beds contain and. Ocean or lakes, and wind in clear, calm, warm, shallow marine waters @ for. Material used for many buildings and roads quartz grains, and rain, will break down rock accumulating. `` laminated '' means that the rock is the process can be that... Corner of the process can be formed over many years boulders and even mountains into sediments, forms. Which new sedimentary rocks cement to form sedimentary rock is erosion or chemical descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com a span. To form concrete and transported over time and with continual pressure, material... ( Figure 9.3 ) is the formation of rocks usually calcium – in given. May build up into rock formations decaying vegetation or animal matter called clastic sedimentary rocks were originally sediments, are... Used historically to make stone tools and start fires its source that consists of surface minerals — and. Pieces are similar to conglomerate because of their large pea-sizes from chemicals that precipitate from water sandstones! On or near the Earth 's surface erode rock and soil, turning it small... Are carried away by water the pebbles have been transported from their place origin.

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